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Standardization: templates and formats

Norms and standards

Bibliographic norms and standards


Bibliographic norms and standards are used daily for the production of metadata. They provide practical rules for description, choice of information sources, transcription, punctuation, etc.

Follow the evolutions linked to the bibliographical transition

Bibliographic norms and standards are evolving due to the need to adapt library catalogues, and therefore cataloguing practices, to fully integrate them into the Web of data and make them more relevant, better structured for the convenience of their users, in line with the objectives of the new International Cataloguing Principles (IFLA, 2009) and the IFLA-LRM model (2017).

The AFNOR Z44-... standards are thus gradually being replaced by the cataloguing code RDA-ENs, as part of the national program Transition Bibliography co-piloted by BnFAbes and BnF. The elements introduced by RDA-FR are intended to coexist with the current AFNOR standards while awaiting the final publication of all the French transition rules.

The new features introduced by the RDA-FR code with reference to AFNOR standards are the subject of numerous training courses and a documentation that evolves according to the progress of the work:

important: to follow the work of the Transition Bibliography program, visit the dedicated website

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Bibliographic description

Cataloguing of bibliographic records in the Sudoc

The references of the AFNOR standards in use in the Sudoc are available for consultation from the Methodological Guide of the Sudoc for the description of different types of catalogued resources:

  • printed monographs
  • sustained resources
  • electronic resources
  • component parts
  • videograms
  • sound recording
  • cartographic resources
  • printed music
  • iconographic resources

The AFNOR standards are based on the set of normative rules ISBD (International Bibliographic Description), developed by IFLA since 1971 (1st edition), and harmonised in 2007 under the French name of consolidated ISBD.

  • current version: ISBD - International standard bibliographic description: consolidated edition, published in 2011.

find out more : consult the BnF website

 

Antiquarian book cataloguing in the Sudoc

The references of the national recommendation "Cataloguing of ancient monographs: bibliographical description and copy data" and its application manual in UNIMARC format, in use in the Sudoc, can be consulted from the Methodological Guide of the Sudoc.

The national recommendation was published in June 2016 under the aegis of the CG46 Information and documentation - AFNOR Group CG46 / CN 46-9 Identification and description / GE6 Evolution of the bibliographical description of published documents. It replaces the experimental standard AFNOR Z44-074 (1986), made obsolete by the technological evolution of library catalogues.

 

Archives and manuscripts

The International Council on Archives (ICA) content description standard ISAD(G), General and International Standard for Archival DescriptionThe Archival Information System (AIS), defined for the description of holdings and collections held in archives, is the international standard of reference for the archival community.

This standard is not directly used in libraries to deal with documents of an archival nature. For the treatment of archival collections held in libraries, the recommendation "Description of Modern and Contemporary Manuscripts and Archival Holdings in Libraries: DeMArch" was developed within the framework of AFNOR, based on a French translation of DACS (Describing Archives: a Content Standard), an application manual for ISAD(G) in the American context.

DeMArch makes it possible to harmonize practices in the context of the computerization of manuscript catalogues while taking into account the specificities of the collections held in libraries. The encoding format used to describe archives and manuscripts is XML-EAD.

For more information: consult the EAD site in library

 

Theses

The description metadata of French electronic theses are modelled according to the national recommendation TEF (Thèses électroniques françaises, 2006), produced by the CG46/CN357/GE5 group of experts within the framework of AFNOR.

The EFT Recommendation is also an XML encoding format based on the METS diagram.

 

Access points, authority notices

The references of the norms and standards in force can be consulted from the Methodological Guide of the Sudoc for the following items :

  • Choice of accesses
  • Names of persons and titles, classification headings, forged titles
  • Family Names
  • Names of foreign persons
  • Names of communities
  • Geographical names
  • Uniform titles (texts)
  • Musical titles

The choice and construction of access points (formerly called "headings"), as well as the drafting of authority notices, are governed by AFNOR standards, which are gradually being replaced by the RDA-FR code (see in particular section 2 on works and expressions, and section 3 on agents).

The IFLA international standards and lists are also used: IFLA Names of Persons, IFLA Anonymous Classics

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Educational Resources

The AFNOR LOM-FR standard (NF Z76-041-1, 2019) allows the modelling and description of educational resources, digital or not. It is the French, normative declination of the international recommendation LOM (Learning Object Metadata, 2002).

Bibliographical references

These international standards form the basis for the different methods of citing references in a bibliography.

ISO 690. Guidelines for writing bibliographic references and citations for information resources

  • NF ISO 690 (ISO 690:2010). ISO. Information and documentation - Guidelines for the preparation of bibliographic references and citations of information resources. 2010.

ISO 4. Rules for abbreviation of words in titles and titles of publications

  • ISO 4:1997. ISO. Information and documentation. Rules for abbreviation of words in titles and titles of publications. 1997.

The ISSN, the international maintenance agency for the ISO 4 standard, gives free access on its site to the List of abbreviations of title words (LTWA: List of Title Word Abbreviations).

ISO 832. Description and Bibliographic References - Rules for Abbreviation of Bibliographic Terms

Status: International Standard
1st edition: 1975
Current edition: 1994, November; December (en)

  • ISO 832:1994. ISO. Information and documentation - Description and bibliographic references - Rules for abbreviation of bibliographic terms. 1994.

ISO 12199. Alphabetical order of multilingual lexicographical and terminological data represented in the Latin alphabet

Status: International Standard
Current edition: 2000, July; August (en)

  • ISO 12199:2000. ISO. Alphabetical ordering of multilingual lexicographical and terminological data represented in the Latin alphabet. 2000.
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Transliteration

ISO or AFNOR standards govern the transliteration into Latin characters of different scripts: Arabic, Persian, Armenian, Chinese, Korean, Cyrillic, Devanagari, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Thai...

to note: the references of the AFNOR standards in use in the Sudoc are available in the Methodological Guide of the Sudoc.

 

Language Codes

The ISO 639-2 (1998) standard for the representation of language names, prescribed by the UNIMARC format, is used in the Sudoc. This standard is maintained by the Library of Congress.

Note: ISO 639-3 is not applied in the Sudoc. It allows a larger number of languages to be represented, and is intended to be exhaustive.

 

Posting codes

ISO 15924. Codes for the representation of posting names

Status: International Standard
1st edition :
Current Edition: 2004, February

  • ISO 15924:2004. ISO. Information and documentation - Codes for the representation of names of scripts. 2004.

 

Country codes

The ISO 3166 standard for the representation of country names, continuously updated and prescribed by the UNIMARC format, is used in the Sudoc.